Arabic

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1. مُحَمَّدٌ ﷺ - Muḥammad - The Oft-Praised This name refers to the fact that everything praises him . The name come froms the root word “تَحْمِيْدٌ” (Taḥmīd) which refers to continual praise. So this name refers to the continual and copious praise of Muḥammad .  He is known as Muḥammad on the earth.

إِنَّ لِيْ أَسْمَاءَ أَنَا مُحَمَّدٌ وَأَنَا أَحْمَدُ وَأَنَا الْمَاحْيُ الَّذِيْ يَمْحُو اللهُ بِيَ الْكُفْرَ وَأَنَا الْحَاشِرُ الَّذِيْ يَحْشَرُ النَّاسَ عَلٰى قَدَمِيْ وَأَنَا الْعَاقِبُ.

“I have many names: I am Muḥammad , I am `Aḥmad , I am Māḥī through whom Allāh dispels disbelief; I am Ḥās̲h̲ir at whose feet mankind will be mustered; and I am ‘Āqib .” (Ṣaḥīḥ Al-Buk̲h̲ārīyy & Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim)
2. أَحْمَدُ ﷺ - `AḥmadThe Greatest Of Praisers This name comes from the root word “حَمْدٌ” (Ḥamd) which means to praise. It is on the scale of `Af’al which refers to something being the most. A hyperbole. So this refers to the one who praises the most and he himself who is praised the most. He ﷺ will carry the Banner of Praise (لِوَاءَ ٱلْحَمْدِ [Liwā` Al-Ḥamd]) on the Day of Judgement. He ﷺ is known as `Aḥmad in the heavens. Before he was born he was praising Allāh ﷻ, which according to Qāḍī ‘Iyād, is why he is called  `Aḥmad in previous scriptures.

وَإِذْ قَالَ عِيْسَى ٱبْنُ مَرْيَمَ يَٰبَنِيٓ إِسْرَٰٓءِيْلَ إِنِّيْ رَسُوْلُ ٱللهِ إِلَيْكُم مُّصَدِّقاً لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيَّ مِنَ ٱلتَّوْرَىٰةِ وَمُبَشِّراًۢ بِرَسُوْلٍ يَأْتِييْ مِنۢ بَعْدِي ٱسْمُهُۥٓ أَحْمَدُ ۖ فَلَمَّا جَآءَهُمْ بِٱلْبَيِّنَٰتِ قَالُوْا هَٰذَا سِحْرٌ مُّبِينٌ ۝٦

“And when Jesus, son of Mary, said: “Children of Israel, I am indeed the Messenger of Allāh to you, confirming the Torah that came before me, and giving good tidings of a Messenger who shall come after me, whose name shall be `Aḥmad.” But then when he brought to them the clear signs they said, “This is manifest sorcery.”” (Sūraħ [61] Aṣ-Ṣaff (The Ranks) `Āyaħ 6)
3. حَامِدٌ ﷺ - Ḥāmid - The Praiser This name comes from the same root as `Aḥmad (“حَمْدٌ” (Ḥamd) which means to praise). He ﷺ praises Allāh ﷻ and His ﷻ servants, and he ﷺ praises our good actions before Allāh ﷻ in the Barzak̲h̲.

حَيَاتِيْ خَيْرٌ لَكُمْ تُحْدِثُوْنَ وَيُحْدَثُ لَكُمْ فَإِذَا مُتْ كَانَتْ وَفَاتِيْ خَيْراً لَكُمْ تَعْرِضُ عَلَيَّ أَعْمَالَكُمْ فَإِذَا رَأَيْتُ خَيْراً حَمَدْتُ اللهَ وَإِنْ رَأَيْتُ مِنْ شَرّاً اسْتَغْفَرْتُ لَكُمْ.

“My being alive is good for you: you perform acts and matters are legislated for you, when I die my passing away shall be good for you. Your deeds will be shown to me; and whatever good I see I will praise Allāh, and whatever bad I see I will ask Allāh to forgive you.” (Al-Bazzār)

4. مَحْمُوْدٌ ﷺ - Maḥmūd - The Praised One He ﷺ  is praised because Allāh ﷻ praises him, as do His ﷻ servants. He ﷺ  was known as Maḥmūd ﷺ in the Psalms of Dāwūd عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ (Zabūr) and in the Torah (Tawrāħ) according to Muḥammad  Al-Mahdī Al-Fāsī. Some scholars have stated that this is the name he ﷺ is known by in the heavens. “The one with the Throne is praised (Maḥmūd) and he is Muḥammad .” (Hassān `Ibn T̲h̲ābit رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُ)
5. أَحِيْدُ ﷺ - `Aḥīd - The Repeller According to Muḥammad Al-Mahdī Al-Fāsī, the Prophet was known by this name in the Tawrāħ (Torah). This name comes from the root words “حَيْدٌ” (Ḥayd) and “حَيْدَانٌ” (Ḥaydān) which means to repel.

اسْمِيْ فِي الْقُرْآنِ مُحَمَّدٌ وَفِي الْإِنْجِيْلَ أَحْمَدُ وَفِي التَّوْرَاةَ أَحِيْدُ وَإِنَّمَا سَمَيْتُ أَحِيْدَ لِأَنِّيْ أَحِيْدُ عَنْ أُمَّتِيْ نَارَ جَهَنَّمَ

“My name in the Qur`ān is Muḥammad, in the Evangel `Aḥmad, and in the Torah `Aḥīd: and I am called so because I repel the fire of Hell from my people.” (Tārīk̲h̲ Dimas̲h̲q & Al-Kāmil Fī Al-Jarḥ Wa At-Ta’dīl)
6. وَحِيْدٌ ﷺ Waḥīd - The Unique He is unique in his station, rank, person, knowledge, Divine secrets, character, way of life, virtues, intellect, and laws; and in fact that no one travelled as far as he did in their Mi’rāj or Heavenly Ascent. This name comes from the root words “وَحْدٌ” (Waḥd), “وَحْدَةٌ” (Waḥdaħ) and “وَحِدَةٌ” (Waḥidaħ) which mean to be unique. “My eyes have never seen anyone more perfect than you. No woman has given birth to anyone more handsome than you. You have been created free from all defects. As if you were created the way you wished” (Ḥassān `Ibn T̲h̲ābit رَضِيَ ٱللهُ عَنْهُ)
7. مَاحٍ ﷺ Māḥ - The Effacer He entirely removed disbelief from the lands of the Arabs in his lifetime. His light remained with his Companions رَضِيَ ٱللهُ عَنْهُمْ and endures with his nation to this day as they continue his mission by dispelling disbelief in action, word and spirit. This name comes from the root word “مَحْيٌ” (Maḥy) which means to erase; efface.

وَأَنَا الْمَاحْيُ الَّذِيْ يَمْحُو اللهُ بِيَ الْكُفْرَ

“I am Māḥī through whom Allāh dispels disbelief.” (Ṣaḥīḥ Al-Buk̲h̲ārīyy & Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim)
8. حَاشِرٌ ﷺ Ḥās̲h̲ir - The Gatherer He will be the first raised on the Day of Resurrection and all mankind will gather around him seeking respite. This name comes from the root word “حَشْرٌ” (Ḥas̲h̲r) which means to gather.

وَأَنَا الْحَاشِرُ الَّذِيْ يَحْشَرُ النَّاسَ عَلٰى قَدَمِيْ

“I am Ḥās̲h̲ir at whose feet mankind will be mustered.” (Ṣaḥīḥ Al-Buk̲h̲ārīyy & Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim)
9. عَاقِبٌ ﷺ‘Āqib - The Last In Succession Allāh created mankind for this world and sent Messengers to call them to a good end (‘Āqibaħ) in all matters in this life and the next. The Prophet was the last in succession of these Prophets and Messengers. He came at a time when the need of guidance was at the peak, which is why he   was chosen as the last Prophet . No Prophet came after him . According to a weak opinion, the people of Jahannam will know him by this name as he will intercede for the believing inhabitants of the Fire. This name comes from the root words “عَقْبٌ” (‘Aqb) and “عُقوْبٌ” (‘Uqūb) which mean to be far away, to end.

أَنَا الْعَاقِبُ الَّذِيْ لَيْسَ بَعْدَهُ نَبِيُّ

“I am ‘Āqib, after whom no Prophet will come.” (Jāmi’ At-Tirmid̲h̲īyy)